Thursday, December 12, 2019
Calibration of Multivariate Management
Question: Discuss about the Calibration of Multivariate Management. Answer: Introduction: The banks and the other financial institutions undertake various functions for a smooth running of their business. One of the key elements related with the operations of banking and other financial institutions is the Credit Portfolio Management. The credit management system worries mostly about the large companies who concentrate on doing business in the various industrial sectors. The large firms have many credit folders in accordance with their various industries, which are inclusive of the loans that are illiquid in nature. In the past, the function of the credit portfolio management included the computation of the average risk of credit to increase the rate of return pertaining to the risk. Such risks are reduced through the selling of loans and hedging in the secondary market, which results to the recognition and controlling of the risk level (Klotz 2015). Unlike the traditional credit portfolio management, the new management system evaluates the whole credit book and does not focus only on the individual borrowers credit risk management. The financial crisis in the year 2007 has led to a dramatic transformation in the economic and financial structure globally. These changes enforced the companies to alter their operational strategies. The outlook of Credit Portfolio Management (CPM) saw a drastic change due to the new necessities of the companies with respect to the growing margin ad cost pressure, liquidity and capital. The financial crisis has therefore, broadened the functions of CPM and now the management system monitors relevant departments like the methodology, finance, business functions and risk information (Naqvi 2016). These requirements for changes compelled Mc Kinsey along with the International Association of Credit Portfolio to initiate a survey by taking certain financial industries from around the globe as their participants. The intention of the survey was to discover the new roles of CPM and the process or system that are required to be introduced by the firms thereby, establishing an effective credit management system. The pertaining problem with CPM is the non-existence of any path or road, which can be followed to develop the management system. The business model of different industries creates the path flow of credit management. Therefore, the credit management system differs for every industries functioning in the global market. The analysis tries to identify the suitable alternatives the management possesses, and the effective procedure the company will choose to establish a roadway for the credit management activities that will generate an effective performance. The development of the functions of CPM is mainly due to the three factors, which will be discussed below: Capital and Liquidity Restraint: The transformation in the policies and regulations in the aspect of capital and liquidity has compelled the financial organizations to make alterations in their strategies. The changing strategy will therefore, include restructuring their financial reports and thus, optimizing the use of capital and creation of profit. The CPM tries to motivate the origination of loans and selling of the assets because a substantial amount of the balance sheet is composed of the credit book. The crucial changes with respect to the Basel IV in the requirement of capital in the financial firms have established changes in the portfolio management (Gundlach 2013). The CPM used to analyze and supervise independently over the loan portfolio and from the rest of the balance sheet and no extra funding was required. The CPM team was independent to analyze the return on equity. The assets of large scale were placed in the front and center in the new management approach with res pect to the new requirements and policies like credit and other operations in the balance sheet. Increase in cost and decreasing margin: The drop in the margin pressure creates urgency to enhance the use of raw materials due to high demand in the market. The reason for margin pressure is the reason behind the development of CPM. The reduction in the sales and rise in the cost of production is the reason behind the rise in the margin pressure. Market Condition Transformation: The development of CPM is also due to the changing market condition. The transformation has mainly been after the financial crisis in 2007. This reason is of less importance with respect to the other two factors. The transformation of the focus to the point of origin in the credit portfolio management is due to the fall in the usefulness in the secondary trading and the intense desire for long-term credit in the secondary market (Christian 2016). The above-discussed problems encouraged the CPM to change its focus from their primary functions of reducing the risk developing with the portfolio and enhancing the return on risk level. The role of CPM is altering and developing with the changing economic transformation and demand. The three factors discussed earlier alter the CPM tools, its working procedure with respect to the concerned organization and the data available for analysis. The financial organizations are proficient in framing, initiating and risk pricing but are not capable in achieving a considerable volume in the balance sheet (Bodie 2015). Such disadvantages of the firms need immediate action even when they are in the requirement of changing the interest income to fee income. The CPM therefore, requires redesigning its roles and functions towards the financial firms with the transforming circumstances. The role of the CPM earlier was to focus on the loan book but, with the changing needs, the system looks on supervising the revelations of risk and their response on the balance sheet. The CPM is therefore, managing all the activities pertaining to risk. There is no individual framework for the functioning of CPM as the design varies in different countries. For example, the continents like Europe and Asia predict CPM to function the vital roles in managing the portfolio and taking steps to reduce the credit risk and creating the balance sheet more suitable to establish the highest amount of equity with the respect to the limitations of the policies (Roggi 2013). The CPM also concentrates on the secondary line, in which the process looks to decrease the constraints of risk limit and then tries to analyze the market opportunities and in the requirement of new capital, initiates stress-testing alternatives along with the introduction of plans in the credit-lending portfolio. An important part of the functions of CPM is to support a modern market outlook and the capability to bring in lucrative business opportunities. The CPM requires creating a developed analytics and an advanced management framework in order to introduce the current powers and control and to reach a position to undertake strategic decisions (Bessis 2015). The modern tools and equipments will allow the CPM team to gain integrity and thus become a decisive partner for any organization. The CPM requires mentoring the business decisions using a tough and dangerous framework thereby enhancing efficient tools for augmentation. The advanced system requires harmonizing with the entire targets and the constraints to the balance sheet thereby, revealing the vast slab of the important performance indicators, a company needs to optimize. The introduction of the current constraints on the policies, the need of transfer pricing is essential to bring in different important aspects that becomes blurred and misleading. Such an activity reduces the motivating powers of CPM. The new roles of CPM require working simultaneously and closely with the different functions directing the balance sheet. The viewpoint regarding the CPM problem remains unchanged irrespective of the geographical restrictions and thus, every firm all around the world feels that the introduction of Credit Portfolio Management should comprise of the advanced equipments to analyze the current risk restrictions. The present role of the CPM needs efficient data to finish its work abiding by the regulations and policies (Klotz 2015). Well-framed information about the risk and finance is essential for the evaluation of the risk-return models and quality information is necessary to gain revised awareness about the company in consideration. The transformation in the data about governance and system will create an optimal chance for CPM to encourage investments for the future and enhancement of the modern techniques and mechanism. Thus, CPM can act as an ideal spot, staying in the middle of all the operations and illustrating the requirements of the business with respect to finance, requirements about the system and the risk information (Andreoli 2016). The CPM focusing on the actions of the portfolio moves it to a more efficient position to mentor the creation of the balance sheet corresponding with the financial operations, focusing on the degree and constraints on the individual analysis. The present function of CPM will be dependent on the various industries and will differ from the advisory to the active portfolio management. The activity selected by an organization needs to complete the work efficiently and with a fine instruction that highlights the utility of the extra value to the other companies. The guidelines of CPM will alter the organizational framework (Hu 2016). Therefore, the CPM requires having a uninterrupted market contact, which will place it in the first line and thereby securing the business. Therefore, it is observed that there is a requirement to enhance and develop the function of CPM to contend with the present environment of the organization concerned. The role of CPM is developing in different ways depending on the geography, marketing mix etc. There is no individual structure or model of CPM and so it is important to find out the best model, which can be introduced within a firm. Comparison with Questor Inc The Credit Portfolio Management analysis can be contrasted with relation to the firm named Questor Inc, manufacturer of pipefittings and valve. Catherine Logan, the president of this company requires a loan from Golden West Bank. The loan amount required by the firm is $1,000,000. Questor Inc forwards all the financial reports and statements of the current and the previous years to the banks so that the bank can analyze these reports and understand the financial position of the firm. Catherine Logan, the president of Questor Inc, requires the banking services from Golden West along with the issuing a loan from the bank. The previous bank of Questor Inc was ignorant towards the company and thus, did not offer them efficient and proper services. Questor even faced problems as the earlier bank changed the assigned loan officer of Questor very frequently resulting to the explanation of all the requirements to the new loan officer all over again and pressing all the financial documents so that the officer can a look into it before granting new loan (Banerjee 2014). After the expiry of the terms with the previous bank, Catherine wanted to join hands with Golden West bank to ensure an effective banking service. The industry was running for a period of 15 years and has been in profit ever since. Logan even claimed that the machineries were in perfect condition and the industry did not need to expand for the next 3 years. The organization to establish a good reputation in front of the bank refers to Fairview Savings and other suppliers. The loan officer of Golden West bank, Felix Fernandez found out that the credit payment process was very swift for Questor Inc. The above study delivers the fact that Questor Inc incurs profit and is therefore, a good business but is moderately efficient in terms of credit portfolio management. The organization comprises of many creditors as they usually pay off their suppliers in credit. Therefore, Questor Inc cannot take any trade discounts as they always purchase in credit from the suppliers. After the financial crisis in 2007, there have been drastic changes in the credit portfolio management. The system has been changing from then ever since with the transformation in the economy (Van Deventer 2013). The CPM of Questor Inc therefore, needs to improve and by looking at the financial reports, it is seen that the capital and liquidity of the organization faces a few restrictions. The liquidity and capital structure needs improvement as it can directly affect the credit risk. The CPM needs to focus on these problems stated above and should make initiatives to solve them. The profit level of Questor being hig h leads to a low margin pressure (Bakker 2014). The financial crisis of 2007 will not have any impact on this study as this paper depicts a scenario from the year 1991 and 1992. The CPM of Questor will therefore, focus on the traditional factors like realizing the level of risk, return on risk and the fall in the credibility of risk. An investigation undertaken by the loan officer of Golden West Felix Fernandez with the help of other loan officers revealed that out of the total inventory of the firm, only fifty percent can be realized on a short notice. Felix even found that the company sells receivables older than sixty days to the customer. The probability of risk associated with these receivables re high and therefore creates a doubt of whether to include these values. Thus, it is important to develop an efficient credit risk management by broadening the activities of management. The credit analysis of the firm can be made better by redesigning and creating a new framework, which will be effective to the current environment (Kevin 2015). The management also requires developing new organizational setup thereby selling the accounts receivable on time and originating a credit risk management to escalate the inventory value to increase the return on risk. The firm is prone to risk due to a lack of an effective credit portfolio management, which can lead to loss of inventory as they hold on to their products for more than sixty days. The loss of the product due to any damage can create loss, which can only be recovered if the CPM is strong in the organization (Van Deventer 2013). Thus, the above evaluation shows that the risks related to the credit is a vital factor and Questor needs to concentrate over the problem of credit with respect to accounts receivable and inventory so that the return on risk and the revenue of the organization can be increased. 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